It is common for batteries to fail in the first months of use or premature aging due to controllable factors.
In this article we are going to detail which are the most repeated factors that cause problems in batteries . In most cases, the manufacturers already detail it in their data sheets or manuals, but it is not taken into account and the battery is damaged, so its warranty period is not applicable. 5 factors that can damage batteries:
1. Battery discharge current
The high discharge rates cause irreversible sulfation creating small amorphous crystals that modify the homogeneous current distribution.
2. Depth of discharge
The high depths of discharge affect the shedding causing detachment of active material to the bottom of the battery due to mechanical stress, this can significantly weaken its charge and discharge efficiency.
3. Load speed
Charge currents above the recommended and therefore overloads affect the corrosion of the positive plate accelerating the process by an aggressive polarization of the electrodes. On the contrary, a high charging speed positively influences the stratification of the electrolyte, causing a good homogenization of the same.
It is important to pay attention to the loading speed and the manufacturer’s recommendations in each case to avoid plate corrosion .
4. Partial states of charge
If the batteries work frequently without getting full charges (for example a solar installation in winter) we will cause an increase in irreversible sulphation, in the stratification of the electrolyte and also a degradation of the active material by causing a preferential discharge. Hence, a full charge is carried out periodically, allowing the optimization of the useful life of the battery.
The installation of batteries in places of high temperatures and/or that the batteries work at high temperatures that are affected mainly by increasing the corrosion of the positive plate, since the heat accelerates the chemical reaction of sulfuric acid attack on lead.
In addition, it also affects (although to a lesser extent) the degradation of the active material, mainly in the electrodes.
It is essential to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations so that the investment of the purchase of a battery is profitable, whether they are: lead acid batteries, GEL batteries, AGM batteries, stationary batteries or lithium batteries.